Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Tehran University of Medical Sciences Press
Vol. 26, No. 4, 2016, pp. 9-16
Bioline Code: pe16048
Full paper language: English
Document type: Research Article
Document available free of charge
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2016, pp. 9-16
© Copyright 2016 - Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
Exposure to Hookah and Cigarette Smoke in Children and Adolescents According to Their Socio-Economic Status: The CASPIAN-IV Study|
Kelishadi, Roya; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ardalan, Gelayol; Poursafa, Parinaz; Heshmat, Ramin & Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil
Background: Exposure to smoking or passive smoking is one of serious health problems especially in the pediatric age group.
Objectives: To compare the prevalence and determinants of passive smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children
and adolescents according to their socioeconomic status (SES).
Materials and Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011 - 2012 among 14880 students aged 6 - 18 years, living in 30
provinces in Iran. Exposure to the smoke of hookah or cigarette was documented by using validated questionnaires. Possible influencing
factors were determined and the frequency of passive smoking was compared according to the regional and familial SES.
Results: Participants consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents including 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban inhabitants (90.6% participation
rate). The mean age of participants was 12.473.36 years. Overall, 43.87% of them (44.07% of boys and 43.66% of girls) were
exposed to second hand smoke at home. Exposures to hookah or cigarette smoke at home were respectively reported in 21.46% and
34.49% of participants. The prevalence of passive smoking was lower in children of families with higher SES level, but higher in high
SES regions of the country than in low SES ones, and ranged from 39.2% in the region with lowest SES to 49.05% in the highest SES
region. Higher education levels of fathers and mothers were significantly associated with lower frequency of passive smoking.
Conclusions: Exposure to second hand smoke is a major problem among Iranian children and adolescents. Low family SES and low
parental education increased the frequency of passive smoking. Appropriate public health education and legislation for smoke free
home as well as family-centered counseling should be strengthened.
Passive Smoking; Determinants; Children and Adolescents; Socio-Economic Status
Alternative site location: http://diglib.tums.ac.ir/pub/