A new loach species (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae: Yunnanilini), Yunnanilus chuanheensis sp. nov.
, was caught from Chuanhe in the upper reaches of the Lixianjiang River, a tributary of the Red River in Nanjian County, Yunnan Province, China. This species is a member of the traditional Y. pleurotaenia
species group based on the presence of a lateral line and cephalic lateral-line canals. It can be distinguished from other species in the Y. pleurotaenia
species group by the following characters: lips without papillae, anterior and posterior nostrils separated, whole body scaled, eye diameter smaller than interorbital width, outer gill raker absent on first gill arch, eye diameter greater than 18% of head length, 10–11 inner gill rakers on first gill arch, and lateral line not extending to vertical through dorsal fin insertion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Yunnanilus
species recorded from the Red River drainage.